Modular Cracking Technology - What is it?

Introduction and a short description of the technology of the full mineralisation of solid and semi-solid organic waste.

 

The offered technology is a patented solution of Pyro‐Kat® and is based on a catalytic low temperature thermolysis technology and gasification combined with a catalytic and adsorptive treatment of post‐pyrolytic gases with recovery of post‐reaction heat. The technology, which is not based on incineration (burning), does not produce additional byproducts such as NOx, dioxins, furans, CO, methane etc.

The maximum temperature of the process is not higher than 750°C.

 

This technology provides on average:

  • Waste volume reduction: 20 – 100 fold
  • Waste mass reduction: 15 – 80 fold
  • Total waste dehydration
  • Total waste deodorisation
  • Total oxidation of organic compounds, including bacteria and viruses, to H2O and CO2 


MCT process description

In a two‐stage process, the waste is first dried under oxygen deficiency (negative pressure) and degassed or mineralised (= 1st stage). 

The 1st stage works on the basis of a two‐chamber system. While the first chamber initially heats up its containing waste in the starting phase and then over one part of the exhaust gas of the entire system to temperatures from 250 °C up to 450 °C (depending on the input material) and mineralises the material;

 

The 2nd chamber is at rest or in dry mode. In the second chamber, the process is repeated as in the first chamber. The first chamber is now refilled and goes into dry mode, and so on. So the two chambers work continuously alternating.

Subsequently, the syngas produced in the first stage is then fed to a catalytic combustion (= 2nd stage). The exhaust gas of the total process after the 2nd stage consists exclusively of pure CO2 and water vapour, all pollutants (such as dioxins, furans) are decomposed during catalytic combustion into the molecular components and also converted into CO2 and water vapour. 

 

The Hg contained in the waste is converted into a harmless Hg compound, eliminated from the process and sent for recycling. What remains is a solid inorganic residue (less than 1% of the original waste volume), which is also completely free of pollutants and can be used as aggregate for concrete or in road construction.

 

The 650 °C to 700 °C hot exhaust gas (CO2 and water vapour) resulting after the second stage (Catalytic Reactor) is approximately 5% recycled to the first stage, where it takes over the heat, the gas burner is now switched off. The mineralisation process in the 2nd chamber is activated, subsequently the heat supply to the two chambers of the first stage takes place only via the above‐mentioned 5% of the exhaust gas of the 2nd stage. A natural gas supply from the outside is no longer necessary. Only when starting up the system it is necessary to supply natural gas for a very short time from the outside, then the process is maintained by itself without external energy supply, including the catalytic combustion in the second stage.

 

If one chamber fails, the system can still operate at half speed.

A total failure is thus avoided.

The heat which results from the catalytic combustion can generate electrical energy via a heat exchanger and a downstream steam turbine including generator. In addition reusable residual heat energy is available; the usable amount of heat energy is about half as large as the amount of electric energy generated.


Data from measurements on existing plants

Temperature in the 1st stage:

Depending on the type and moisture content of the waste from 250 °C to 450 °C.

Gas composition after the 1st stage

Syngas (mainly CO, CH4, H, various pollutants)

Temperature in the 2nd stage (catalytic combustion of the syngas):

Depending on the composition of the syngas 650 °C to 700 °C

Gas composition after the 2nd stage (i.e. after the catalyst)

Purest CO2, purest water vapour, all pollutants well below the limits allowed by EU directives

 

Pyro‐Kat Project Example 

Efficiency of the Pyro‐Kat process:

Available heat energy after the catalyst relative to the energy content of the supplied waste approx. 85% to 95%.

Efficiency of electricity generation:

Heat Exchanger + Steam Turbine + Generator approx. 42%

The overall efficiency of the whole system (i.e. generated electrical energy relative to the energy content of the waste introduced) is approx. 36% to 40%.


Proces flow diagram MCT proces




Waste into energy flow MCT today and tomorrow


Production of electricity

  • Considering the production of electricity - today the steam produced in the MCT process is primarily used.
  • The steam drives steam turbines, and they drive generators for producing electric energy.
  • Steam turbines and generators may or may not be an integral part of the MCT plant.

 

MCT technology is constantly evolving and improvements are underway, such as hydrogen purification and hydrogen fuel combustion/cell, as well as thermolytic converters that directly convert heat into electricity. This is a guarantee that the plant will certainly not be outdated and ready for "TOMORROW"!